Large variations in the amount of antimicrobials used in food animal production.
Emergence of resistance bacteria and resistance genes
= is it possible to reduce the usage of antimicrobial agents for food animals
=the trade off significance and use veterinary drugs: Surveillance of …. Use and antibiotic resistance in Kenya.
Selection of resistance
Knowledge is incomplete; build most appropriate treatment regimes to limit/reduce drug resistance, quantitative impact of the use of different antimicrobial agents on selection of resistance
Veterinary antimicrobial compounds,
Use of many drugs provide favorable conditions for selective resistance
Special emphasis is given to data from Nakuru County
Estimated amount in milligrams of antimicrobial agents per kilogram of raw meat at the point of selling to direct consumer use graph
Used as growth promoters
Avoparcin was banned in Denmark because of the selection of glycopeptide resistant enterococci and the potential risk of spread of this resistance to humans.
In 1997, avoparcin was banned in all EU-countries and in 1998 the European Commission decided to ban the use of bacitracin, spiramycin, tylosin and virginiamycin for growth promotion. Consequently, the use of growth promoters decreased significantly in Denmark (fig. 2). As provided by Danish regulations all sales of therapeutic veterinary medicines must take place by prescription from a veterinarian doctor.
Estimated amount in milligrams of antimicrobial agents per kilogram of raw meat at the point of selling to direct consumer for therapeutic purposes
Estimated amount in milligrams of antimicrobial agents per kilogram of raw meat at the point of selling to direct consumer for growth purposes
Estimated amount in milligrams of antimicrobial agents per kilogram of raw meat at the point of selling to direct consumer for prophylactic purposes
Considering the major differences of antimicrobial activity for different drugs
Antimicrobials in humans.
A very high frequency of resistance to antimicrobial agents used for therapy and/or growth promotion in food animal production has been observed in several studies. However, most reports are based on research studies and are severely hampered by the lack of proper epidemiological selection criteria and are mostly based on pathogenic isolates from clinically ill and perhaps medicated animals. It is therefore very difficult and sometimes impossible to compare results of studies performed in different countries or at different times. Information on the occurrence of resistance is needed at both the local, regional and international level to guide policy and detect changes that require intervention strategies. To fulfil this requirement, systems for the continuous monitoring on the changes in the occurrence of resistance are needed.
The relations between drug resistance in livestock, drug resistance in human and drug resistance in animal model.
The review has focused on four important groups of antibiotics (tylosin, tetracycline, sulfonamides and, to a lesser extent, bacitracin) giving a background on their chemical nature, fate processes, occurrence, and effects on plants, soil organisms and bacterial community. Recognising the importance and the growing debate, the issue of antibiotic resistance due to the frequent use of antibiotics in food-producing animals is also briefly covered. The final section highlights some unresolved questions and presents a way forward on issues requiring urgent attention.
Antimicrobial agents are used in food animals for therapy and prophylaxis of bacterial infections and in feed to promote growth. The use of antimicrobial agents for food animals may cause problems in the therapy of infections by selecting for resistance among bacteria pathogenic for animals or humans. The emergence of resistant bacteria and resistance genes following the use of antimicrobial agents is relatively well documented and it seems evident that all antimicrobial agents will select for resistance. However, current knowledge regarding the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in food animals, the quantitative impact of the use of different antimicrobial agents on selection for resistance and the most appropriate treatment regimens to limit the development of resistance is incomplete. Surveillance programmes monitoring the occurrence and development of resistance and consumption of antimicrobial agents are urgently needed, as is research into the most appropriate ways to use antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine to limit the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance.
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